Conditions & Indications

Conditions
&
Indications

“The human foot is a masterpiece of engineering and a work of art.”

- Leonardo DaVinci


Abducted

The movement of a limb away from the midline of the body.


Achy feet

Injury or overuse of the bones, ligaments or tendons of the foot can cause foot pain. You may experience pain, numbness and/ or a burning sensation.


Adducted

The movement of a limb towards the midline of the body.


Arch fill

Used to add firmness or rigidity to the medial arch. It is often added to stabilize the plate and avoid the stressors that occur in the medial arch area and also helps avoid orthotic movement in the shoe.


Arch pain

Most often caused by inflammation of the plantar fascia. People with flat feet experience arch pain due to overpronation (rolling inward / flat feet).


Arthritis

Arthritis refers to any disorder affecting the joints. It results in pain, inflammation and stiffness of the joints.


Athlete’s foot

Is a skin condition caused by the ringworm fungus. Symptoms include itching, burning, cracking, peeling and bleeding feet. Treatment involves keeping the feet dry and clean, wearing shoes that can breathe and using medicated powders to keep your feet dry.


Back pain

Walking and standing for long periods of time often results in back pain. Lower back pain can actually be caused by over-pronation (rolling in of the foot).


Blister

Is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection. Most blisters are filled with a clear fluid, either serum or plasma. However, blisters can be filled with blood (known as "blood blisters") or with pus, for instance, if they become infected.


Bunion

A deformity of the joint connecting the big toe to the foot.The big toe often bends towards the other toes and the joint becomes painful. Orthotics can provide arch support and help reduce pressure in the affected area.


Carbon shell

A lightweight rigid graphite fiber mesh woven and embedded in epoxy, creating a lightweight and strong support.


Chiropodist / Podiatrist

Is a specialized foot doctor who treats people suffering from lower limb or common foot problems such as bunions and ingrown toenails. Chiropodists are also the only regulated health professionals in Ontario whose legislated scope of practice includes the provisioning of orthotics.


Claw toe

A deformity that typically affects one or more of the small toes characterized by bending at the two toe joints, which give the appearance of a claw or talon.


Corns

A pinpoint thickening of the outer layer of skin caused by friction that is usually found on the tops of toes or directly beneath a bone.


Diabetic foot

Diabetes can severely affect the feet and can lead to foot disease, fractures and ulcers. Diabetic foot problems may be the result of poorly functioning nerves (neuropathy), hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and decreased resistance to infection (immunosuppression). An orthotic can help protect your foot against ulcers, calluses, corns and foot injuries and can relieve pressure on sensitive spots on your feet.


ETC topcover

The top layer of the orthotic that comes in direct contact with your foot. This material has moisture, heat and friction reducing qualities as well as a cushioning benefit.


Extrinsic post

An additional piece of material placed under the orthotic to stabilize the device and to control pronation (rolling inward)


First met cut out

A 1st metatarsal cut-out drops the first metatarsal down and forces the forefoot into pronation, achieving a better heel strike.


First ray cut out

The medial corner of the orthosis plate is removed starting distally from the 1st intermetatarsal space and extending proximally to the 1st metatarsal base. The intent is to further plantarflex the 1st ray.


Flange

Flanges are located on the outside of the shell in the area of the medial arch to help control pronation.


Flat Feet

Flat feet is a deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse. Orthotics can minimize the pain of collapsed arches, restore balance and help to reposition the foot.


Foam padding

A cushiony layer of the orthotic device that provides extra cushioning and shock absorption.


Fungal nail infection

Fungal nail infections are caused by various fungal organisms (fungi). The most common cause is a type of fungus called dermatophyte. Yeast and molds also can cause nail infections. Toenail fungal infection can start from athlete's foot (foot fungus), and it can spread from one nail to another, causing a yellow, brittle damaged nail.


Gait

A person's manner of walking. Often used to describe a manner of walking when the body systems that control the way a person walks do not function in the usual way


Gait plate

A semi rigid accommodation to the device that extends laterally. Designed to improve balance, coordination and in-toeing.


Gout

A form of arthritis causing joints to appear red, hot and swollen without infection. The big toe is the joint most commonly affected.


Hallux valgus

Medical term for a bunion which is a deformity of the joint connecting the big toe to the foot. The big toe often bends towards the other toes and the joint becomes painful. Orthotics can provide arch support and help reduce pressure in the affected area.


Hammer toe

A toe deformity, caused by arthritis, where the toe joint furthest from the end of the toe is contracted, often causing corns, open sores, inflammation and pain.


Heel hole

A hole cut through the orthotic shell under the heel bone to accommodate heel spurs.


Heel pad

Additional cushioning placed on the posterior surface of the orthotic


Heel pain

Most often caused by conditions such as plantar fasciitis, achilles tendonitis or a stress fracture. Orthotics raise the arch providing support and pain relief


Heel spurs

A build up of calcium on the bottom of the heel bone often caused by constant stress on the foot.


Heel Strike

The contact of the heel with the floor


Hip pain

Often caused by arthritis, bursitis, tendinitis or muscle strain. Orthotics can improve hip function and reduce your pain.


In-toe

The positioning of the feet inwards rather than pointing straight ahead. Often caused by the inward turning of the foot, the shinbone or the thigh bone.


Ingrown toenail

Painful nail problem where the edges of nails curl downward and grow into the skin.


Knee Pain

Knee pain may be the result of a torn ligament, torn cartilage, arthritis or gout. Orthotics can help by preventing the unnatural rotation of the lower leg and supporting the arches thereby reducing the twisting on the knee.


Lateral flange

A curved increase in the height of the outer edges of the orthotic on the lateral side of the device.


Medial flange

A vertical extension of the medial arch region of the shell to control pronation.


Metatarsal bar

A rubber, leather or synthetic bar applied to the sole of the orthotic underneath the topcover. It is tear shaped and is higher in the center and lower at the edges. It acts to shift pressure from the metatarsal heads to the metatarsal shafts.


Metatarsal pad

A raised pad placed underneath the topcover to help support the arch and provide cushioning for the ball of the foot. It also assists in maintaining the foot in its natural position.


Metatarsal

Bones of the foot located just behind the toes.


Metatarsalgia

Refers to a sharp pain in the ball of the foot often caused by arthritis, poor circulation or the pinching of the nerves between the toes. Orthotics can help by redistributing the pressure away from the ball of the foot.


Microcell puff

A topcover material offering comfort, shock absorption and shape retention.


Morton’s Extension

A continuation of the polypropylene or graphite shell of the orthosis beyond the first metatarsophalangeal joint extending to the tip of the toe.


Morton’s Neuroma

Pain caused by a thickening of the tissue around the nerves leading to the toes. It often causes a sharp pain in the ball of the foot and a stinging or burning in the toes.


Narrow grind

The process of grinding the inner/ outer edges of the orthotic shell to accommodate a narrower shoe.


Neuroma

Nerve pain in the ball of the foot around the 3rd and 4th toe often creating a burning sensation. Pressure and pain can be relieved by adding extra padding to the ball of the foot.


Neuroma pad

A small, tear shaped pad placed between the metatarsal heads which spread the bones at the base of the toes thereby alleviating nerve pinching.


Neuropathy

Nerve damage resulting in numbness, muscle weakness and pain


Neoprene

A cushioned topcover that manages perspiration, odor-causing bacteria and athlete’s foot fungi.


Nyplex

A fabric used on mid layer of orthotic offering additional cushioning and shock absorption.


Orthotics

Custom shoe insoles used for the correction of the biomechanical problems that cause foot problems.


Orthopedic Shoes

Orthopedic shoes are shoes specially designed to support the foot, ankle and leg. They are often designed with a specific use in mind, for example, a person living with cerebral palsy may require orthopedic shoes.


Out-toe

The rotation of the feet outwards. Can be a result of fetal positioning or underlying conditions.


Plantar fascia

The flat band of tissue connecting the heel bone to the toes, supporting the arch of the foot.


Plantar fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is foot pain caused by a problem with your plantar fascia which is the tissue along the bottom of your foot connecting your heel bone to your toes. It's the most common cause of heel pain and is often worse when you start walking first thing in the morning and after periods of rest. It is common in people who spend a lot of time on their feet. Orthotics can help minimize the stress on the plantar fascia and provide support to the heel and foot.


Plantar wart

A common foot problem appearing as raised bumps on the bottom of the footmaking walking uncomfortable and/or painful.


Plastazote

A material made of polyethylene material approved for diabetic insoles. It is lightweight, strong and resistant to bacteria.


Polypropylene shell

Shell material that is very durable and less rigid than carbon.


Podiatrist / Chiropodist

Is a specialized foot doctor who treats people suffering from lower limb or common foot problems such as bunions and ingrown toenails. Chiropodists are also the only regulated health professionals in Ontario whose legislated scope of practice includes the provisioning of orthotics.


Poron arch fill

Layering built into the orthotic to provide rigidity and additional cushioning without compressing.


Pronation

The movement of the foot as you walk or run. Overpronation occurs when the arch collapses when absorbing the impact.


Rear Foot Post

Material added to the surface of the heel of the orthotic shell to increase the contact area and provide stability. Often used for overpronation (flat feet) and weight bearing.


Reverse Morton

An extension placed under metatarsal heads 2 – 5. This allows the first ray to plantarflex and thus decreases compression forces within the first metatarsal phalangeal joint (MPJ) and reduces tensile forces on the plantar fascia.


Rigid lateral flange

An accommodation used for help pronation.


Sesamoiditis

Inflammation of one or two of the small bones located under the joint between the big toe and the first long bone (metatarsal).


Shin splints

Pain along the inner edge of the shinbone. They are a common injury affecting athletes who practice various forms of physical activity, including running and jumping. Orthotics can reduce stress in your lower leg and more specifically your shins.


Stress fracture

Is a fatigue-induced fracture of the bone caused by repeated stress over time. Instead of resulting from a single severe impact, stress fractures are the result of accumulated trauma from repeated submaximal loading, such as running or jumping. Because of this mechanism, stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes. Stress fractures can be described as very small slivers or cracks in the bone; and are sometimes referred to as "hairline fractures." Stress fractures most frequently occur in weight-bearing bones, such as the tibia (bone of the lower leg), metatarsals, and navicular bones (bones of the foot). Less common are fractures to the femur, pelvis, and sacrum.


Sulcus

An optional length of orthotic ending just before the toes.


Supination

When the weight rolls to the outer edge of the foot often resulting in hip and knee pain, plantar fasciitis or heel spurs.


Tarsal coalition

A condition in which two or more bones in the midfoot or rearfoot are fused.


Underlay

A thin fabric used on the bottom of the orthotic providing a finished aesthetic and additional structure.


UCBL

A maximum control orthotic used to stabilize and control the arch and the outside border of the foot. It fully encompasses the heel to keep it properly aligned. Its name is derived from the University of California-Berkeley Lab where it was researched and developed.


Valgus

An angulation or bowing of a bone in an outward direction - away from the midline.


Varus

An angulation or bowing of a bone in an inward direction - towards the midline.


Weightbearing

The amount of weight a person puts on an injured body part.